Operational analysis evaluates and quantifies the military utility of technologies and concepts using combat effectiveness models. By ensuring the accurate functional performance representation of technologies and concepts, operational analysis quantifies the potential contribution to future force performance, and demonstrates the value of the program for transition and future development efforts. Signature Research, Inc. uses a variety of methodologies, from cross-functional/multi- functional trade-off to combat effectiveness models, such as COMBAT XXI to support operational analysis efforts. Operational analysis often begins by performing a threat analysis to define the environment a system operates within. The threat analysis is performed to determine the baseline for “What is Required?” and “How Much is Enough?”, and to identify potential system opportunities and vulnerabilities. The operational analysis often ends with establishing the cost-effectiveness and military utility of introducing technologies and concepts to the force using a variety of metrics and methods. These may vary from a Psurvive metric from the threat oriented survivability optimization model (TOSOM) to a more general discussion of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques in order to combat effectiveness models loss exchange ratio (LER), fractional exchange ratio (FER) and probability of mission success. The key is to tailor the methodology and metrics to the specific military utility issues to be addressed.